High neuroticism is considered maladaptive, as shown by numerous studies in Caucasians. People with high neuroticism are thought to be less able to regulate their emotions. In a sample of Japanese, we have recently shown an opposite effect, better biological health measures associated with increased neuroticism. These findings are consistent with prior work in cultural psychology suggesting that privileged processing of negative self-relevant information, called self-criticism, is rather common among Asians. It is also consistent with evolutionary studies considering a certain level of anxiety adaptive. In the current project, we draw on this literature to test two predictions: 1) The anxiety facet of neuroticism will be associated with impaired emotion regulation in Caucasians, but with improved regulation in Japanese, 2) genetic variants associated with neuroticism would be linked to impaired emotion regulation in Caucasians, but to improved regulation in Japanese.