This research explores the influences of, and links between, diet, dental development, ecological variability, and overall life history pace, within human and non-human primate evolution. This will be accomplished using the microstructural and biogeochemical composition of the teeth of several wild primate species (chimpanzees, yellow baboons, red-tailed monkeys, and black and white colobus monkeys), including adult individuals as well as juveniles that died before their teeth had finished forming in the jaw. MicroCT scanning will be used along with histological sectioning and imaging to reconstruct the timing of the first molar eruption process as well as tooth formation in each taxon. Novel mechanical micro-sampling methods in conjunction with stable isotope analysis of enamel apatite and dentine, as well as trace elemental analysis via LA ICP-MS, will provide a timeline for dietary transitions, intrinsic stresses, and environmental fluctuations that can be compared with the first molar eruption and formation data. Results will provide support for the use of these methods to assess overall life history pace in fossil taxa, including our hominin ancestors, for whom limited samples are all that is available with which to document life history evolution.