Thermodynamics describes transformations of physical systems using notions such as entropy, heat, temperature, and work, etc. It is a successful theory for macroscopic processes and has wide applications. It also has a microscopic explanation via statistical thermodynamics.
A new challenge to this classical subject was brought by the advent of quantum information technology. What would be an appropriate and useful theory of thermodynamics for quantum processes? What are the fundamental differences between quantum and classical thermodynamics? What are the corresponding notions of heat and work? How can we experimentally measure these quantities? How much energy is needed for quantum operations? How does the cost depend on the partial knowledge on the quantum system? These are natural and fundamental questions that researchers have just started to investigate. We are witnessing the emergence of a new branch of physics and I invite you to be a partner for this exciting adventure.