This project explores how the American identities of Arab immigrants are developing in a context of political suspicion. It considers three potential possibilities: defensive Americanization, reimagined ethnicity, and protective isolation; and examines their correlation with demographics, visa category, neighborhood and workplace diversity, discrimination; media exposure, and political history. The data include 70 open-ended interviews with Arab immigrants in metro Detroit (1998-2000); the 2003 Detroit Arab American Survey (DAAS); and 100 new open-ended interviews. The latter will be timed to take advantage of the 2016 presidential campaign, in which hostile rhetoric about immigrants and Islam has been omnipresent. These data will be used to inform a field experiment in the project's second phase.