Ph.D. Physics. 1988.
M.S. Physics. 1986.
B.S. Physics. 1983.
I have three areas of particular emphasis in my research. I work with perfluorocarbon liquid droplets that allow systemic injection of transpulmonary agents that are triggered by ultrasound to form gas bubbles for occlusion therapy and drug delivery. The droplets can be formed in double emulsions to encapsulate lipid and aqueous soluble materials or particulates. I am interested in expanding this research to applications where physical and chemical effects can be used to study tissue function, such as in the brain, and to design therapeutic approaches. Studies have shown that ultrasound can temporarily open the blood brain barrier thus allowing transit of chemical agents and even cells. This could open opportunities for studies where spatial and temporal control of effects would provide understanding of function, yield better therapeutic effects, and/or reduced systemic effects. We have also developed a volumetric blood flow measurement method using 3D Doppler ultrasound that is angle and geometry independent. This simplifies this highly desirable measurement and increases its accuracy and reproducibility. In conjunction with a medical imaging company, we are presently examining how to translate the method to clinical practice. The range of clinical applications includes umbilical cord flow, cardiac output, hepatic and renal flow and cerebral flow. Several of these uses could change patient management and eliminate more invasive measurements. Finally, I have worked with a team within the College of Engineering and the Medical School to develop histotripsy, the use of pulsed ultrasound to emulsify tissue by gas bubbles formed in highly focused transcutaneous ultrasound fields. The effects of these bubbles are restricted to the high amplitude of the focal region and thus provide a highly localized and controllable method for tissue disruption. We are presently commercializing a product for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. The method can be applied to any condition where the appropriate acoustic access can be achieved and elimination of tissue is required.
Fabiilli ML, Lee JA, Kripfgans OD, Carson PL, Fowlkes JB, “Delivery of water -soluble drugs using acoustically-triggered, perfluorocarbon double emulsions,” Pharm Res 27(12):2753-2765, 2010.
Samuel S, Duprey A, Fabiilli ML, Bull JL, Fowlkes JB, ”In vivo microscopy of targeted vessel occlusion employing acoustic droplet vaporization,” Microcirculation. Mar 2012 (Epub ahead of print).
Richards MS, Kripfgans OD, Rubin JM, Hall AL, Fowlkes JB, “Mean volume flow estimation in pulsatile flow conditions,” Ultrasound Med Biol, 35(11):1880-91, 2009.
Fabiilli ML, Haworth KJ, Sebastian IE, Kripfgans OD, Carson PL, Fowlkes JB, “Delivery of chlorambucil using an acoustically-triggered, pefluoropentane emulsion,” Ultrasound Med Biol, 36(8):1364-1375, 2010.
Maxwell AD, Wang TY, Cain CA, Fowlkes JB, Sapozhnikov OA, Bailey MR, Xu Z, “Cavitation clouds created by shock scattering from bubbles during histotripsy,” J Acoust Soc Am, 130(4): 1888-98, 2011.